A+ Oral Citations

A quick reminder to all who may need it:

An effective oral citation (especially the first citation of each source during a speech) includes 4 parts. Do not neglect any of these parts, as each provides clear information for the audience.

First, state the author or source’s name. We cannot look up something if we don’t know who is responsible for that information. Keep in mind that you should provide all listed authors’ names the first time you credit a source. If that means listing 5-6 names, that’s part of crediting their work.

Second, explain why that author or source is credible. Why should you trust someone, just because they wrote a paper or an opinion article for the local newspaper? Being published is no longer a value on a topic (nearly every presidential candidate this year has published a book prior to their running for the office!); rather, you must place emphasis for your audience as to why they are a valuable source for THAT topic.

Third, tell us when the information was published or revealed. When a source says something is really important. Did you tell your family about your significant other BEFORE they found out or only after someone saw you two on a date? Similarly, information about terrorism will seem different, even if valid, if published before September 11, 2001 or after it.

Finally, tell us where that information can be located. If you learned something through a personal interview, you would want to acknowledge that. If you found it in an article from the New York Times, we should be able to find it.

One easy way to remember or consider what you would want to share in an oral citation is to look at a Works Cited entry; MUCH of the same information is shared in both written entries and oral citations. Granted, there are differences, but similarities do exist.

You might want to start using this information to prepare for the final exam. Just a thought.


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